Regulation of gene expression in cattle
Even though all cells of an organism have the same genome, they obviously do not have the same functions. These differences are due to differential expressions of genes, a consequence of differences in the regulation of gene expression. It has recently been shown using genome-wide association studies that often genetic variants associated to traits of interest are enriched in regulatory regions. It is therefore important to understand the regulation of gene expression, which requires identifying the regulatory elements in the genome and knowing which genes they are acting on.
Regulators can be of two types: 1) genomic regions (i.e. promoter, enhancer, repressor and insulator) that bind proteins, or non-coding RNAs; and 2) regulatory factors, which are the genes encoding regulatory proteins (the best known being transcription factors) or the non-coding RNAs.
In my presentation, I will present our ongoing work to identify promoter regions and long non-coding RNAs, as well as the study of polymorphisms affecting the regulation of gene expression.